måndag 7 oktober 2013

Engelska 9a Summary of History of the English Language

Summary of”History of English language”

The English language and the Dutch language contain many similar words like: Mist, cold and so on. This is because they both are results of the Germanic language.

500 AD – The Celts who lived in England got invaded by the Germanic tribes (Jutes, Anglo-Saxons)
-          The Celts were treated as second class citizens by the Germanic tribes and they had no saying in what language that should be used.
500 AD – The Celtic language got demolished and the Anglo-Saxon language for us known as Old English became the new official language of the nation.

                      - The Old English language had around 25000 words.
                      - They wrote in rune writing on material like wood and stone.
                      - Most tales were not written down at this time but were retold orally by the people in        the communities. This resulted in many different versions of the same tale.

600-700 AD – The Christian faith was introduced to the Germanic communities and this started a growth in the literature production.
-          The Christians built churches which became the center for knowledge.
-          They introduced the Latin language and the alphabet.
-          They introduced smarter ways of storing the written texts (paper and skin to write on)
-          Only a small percentage of the people from the higher ranks of society could read Latin. (It was mostly priests and bishops who could read, write and speak Latin.
-          Most of the people going to church at this time did not understand what the priests/monks were saying when they read out of the Bible, so the understanding of the Christian faith from a Bible perspective was low.
-          The man who introduced the Christian faith first to the Germanic tribes was Agustin.

650-700 AD - The Old English language started to grow in the later years of the 700 when oral tales were written down by the monks in the churches. The Bible also got translated into Old English from Latin witch was a huge success among the commoners. (This was the first time they were able to understand the Bible)
700-1000 AD – The brutal Vikings invaded the English land and had much success, conquering all of the land except Wessex in the southern part. As conquerors always do the Vikings tried to eradicate the existing language (Old English/Latin) and tried to replace them with their own Norse language. An English king from the last remaining English part named Alfred fought back the Vikings and during a long time of guerilla wars he made a treaty with the Danish king  giving half the English country to the Danes and established a law called Dane law which contained information about trade with the Danish.

-          Only the south part of England didn’t get conquered by the Vikings.
-     One of the most famous written texts from this time is Beowulf. The main character is supposed to come from Denmark.
-          The Norse language influenced the Old English language with a great deal of words such as: By – Farm, Torp – Village, The –Son in last names, Window, sky – himmel, beck -_-.  These and many other Norse words can now be used as synonyms in the English language.
-          The Danes and the English also had intermarriages which made the mixing of the two languages a faster process.
-          Alfred was a strong supporter of the English language and he had a vision of the country being welded together by one language that everybody would understand.
-          Alfred had 5 books translated from Latin to English. He handed them out to his 12 bishops who would then teach the content of those books to the masses.

-          Alfred’s idea was to let the scholars learn Latin and the commoner to learn English.
1066                The English realm crowned a new king after the battle of Hastings. His name was William and he was a Frenchman who couldn´t speak English. The result of having a French king was that French loan words got introduced to the English.